The impact of micro-scale turbulence on the dynamics can be described in the statistical mean as an effective diffusivity. The statistical behavior of large-scale waves can be described as macro-turbulence. Both concepts need to be considered for a correct treatment of resolved and unresolved scales in numerical simulations.
For the topic, circulation models with parameterized turbulence were used (ICON-IAP and KMCM), partly coupled with a chemistry model (MECTM). Theoretical contributions on this subject were devoted to the problem of wave-induced mixing and turbulent closure at different scales.
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