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Global Circulation

The global residual circulation extends from the troposphere through the middle atmosphere. In the upper mesosphere / lower thermosphere, it is in exchange with the atmospheric layers above. The interaction between waves and mean flow ad well as inter- and intra-hemispheric differences and similarities are of special interest. They are a key element in the global energy budgets.


For the diagnosis of the spatio-temporally averaged mass circulation the so-called Transformed Eulerian Mean (TEM) equations are applied o observations and to model simulations (for examle from KMCM or UA-ICON). The resulting "residual" circulation contains the mean wind (Euler wind) and wave-induced transports (eddy flux). For the study of related energy balances energy and mass conserving simulations and assimilations are used.

Recent publications

  • Becker, E., S. L. Vadas, K. Bossert, V. L. Harvey, C. Zülicke & L. Hoffmann, 2022: A high-resolution whole-atmosphere model with resolved gravity waves and specified large-scale dynamics in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 127,  2: 035018, doi:10.1029/2021JD035018.
  • Harvey, V. L., C. E. Randall, S. M. Bailey, E. Becker, J. L. Chau, C. Y. Cullens, L. P. Goncharenko, L. L. Gordley, N. P. Hindley, R. S. Lieberman, H.-L. Liu, L. Megner, S. E. Palo, N. M. Pedatella, D. E. Siskind, F. Sassi, A. K. Smith, G. Stober, C. Stolle & J. Yue, 2022: Improving ionospheric predictability requires accurate simulation of the mesospheric polar vortex. Front. Astronom. Space Sci. 9, doi:10.3389/fspas.2022.1041426.
  • Kumar, S., T. A. Siddiqui, C. Stolle, N. M. Pedatella & D. Pallamraju, 2023: Impact of strong and weak stratospheric polar vortices on geomagnetic semidiurnal solar and lunar tides. Earth Planets Space 75,  1: 52, doi:10.1186/s40623-023-01810-x.
  • Stolle, C., J. Baerenzung, E. A. Kronberg, J. Kusche, H. Liu & H. Shimizu, 2023: Special issue “DynamicEarth: Earth’s interior, surface, ocean, atmosphere, and near space interactions”. Earth Planets Space 75,  1, doi:10.1186/s40623-023-01893-6.
  • Yamazaki, Y., B. J. Harding, L. Qiu, C. Stolle, T. A. Siddiqui, Y. Miyoshi, C. R. Englert & S. L. England, 2023: Monthly Climatologies of Zonal-Mean and Tidal Winds in the Thermosphere as Observed by ICON/MIGHTI During April 2020–March 2022. Earth Space Sci. 10,  6: 002962, doi:10.1029/2023ea002962.


  • Markus Kunze
  • Tarique Adnan Siddiqui
  • Claudia Stephan
  • Yosuke Yamazaki
  • Christoph Zülicke