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Medium-term Dynamics

The dynamics of wave-mean flow interaction is of basic importance for the patterns of atmospheric circulation. Planetary Rossby waves govern sudden stratospheric warmings, the Brewer-Dobson circulation and other phenomena in the stratosphere, while gravity waves are important in the mesosphere. Subject of this research theme are their medium-term effects in the middle atmosphere and the associated spatio-temporal variability of the circulation in the mesosphere / lower thermosphere.


The diagnosis of the impact of Rossby and gravity waves in simulations (for example from KMCM or UA-ICON) is important, which implies the application and further development of tools like the Eliassen-Palm flux or simplified transport models. The joint evaluation of models with observations and analyses is undertaken to identify the relevant processes.

Recent publications

  • Chau, J. L., W. J. Longley, P. M. Reyes, N. M. Pedatella, Y. Otsuka, C. Stolle, H. Liu, S. L. England, J. P. Vierinen, M. A. Milla, D. L. Hysell, M. M. Oppenheim, A. Patra, G. Lehmacher & E. Kudeki, 2023: Solved and unsolved riddles about low-latitude daytime valley region plasma waves and 150-km echoes. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 10: 1091319, doi:10.3389/fspas.2023.1091319.
  • Heilig, B., C. Stolle, G. Kervalishvili, J. Rauberg, Y. Miyoshi, F. Tsuchiya, A. Kumamoto, Y. Kasahara, M. Shoji, S. Nakamura, M. Kitahara & I. Shinohara, 2022: Relation of the Plasmapause to the Midlatitude Ionospheric Trough, the Sub‐Auroral Temperature Enhancement and the Distribution of Small‐Scale Field Aligned Currents as Observed in the Magnetosphere by THEMIS, RBSP, and Arase, and in the Topside Ionosphere by Swarm. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 127,  3, doi:10.1029/2021ja029646.
  • Huang, Y., C. Xiong, J. Wu, C. Stolle, F. Wang, Y. Zheng, C. Xu, Y. Hu & S. Wang, 2023: Dayside Vertical Wind Reversal at Transition Altitude From E to F Regions Observed by the ICON Satellite. Earth Space Sci. 10,  5: 002836, doi:10.1029/2023ea002836.
  • Michaelis, I., K. Styp-Rekowski, J. Rauberg, C. Stolle & M. Korte, 2022: Geomagnetic data from the GOCE satellite mission. Earth Planets Space 74,  1, doi:10.1186/s40623-022-01691-6.
  • Qiu, L., X. Lu, T. Yu, Y. Yamazaki, H. Liu, Y.-Y. Sun, H. Wu, X. Zuo, X. Yan, Y. Yu & Y. Qi, 2023: Horizontal structure of convergent wind shear associated with sporadic E layers over East Asia. Earth Planet. Phys. 7,  5: 548-557, doi:10.26464/epp2023071.
  • Qiu, L., Y. Yamazaki, T. Yu, E. Becker, Y. Miyoshi, Y. Qi, T. A. Siddiqui, C. Stolle, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, Y. Liang & H. Liu, 2023: Numerical Simulations of Metallic Ion Density Perturbations in Sporadic E Layers Caused by Gravity Waves. Earth Space Sci. 10,  8: 003030, doi:10.1029/2023ea003030.
  • Qiu, L., Y. Yamazaki, T. Yu, Y. Miyoshi & X. Zuo, 2023: Numerical Investigation on the Height and Intensity Variations of Sporadic E Layers at Mid‐Latitude. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 128,  9: 031508, doi:10.1029/2023ja031508.
  • Rout, D., S. Patra, S. Kumar, D. Chakrabarty, G. D. Reeves, C. Stolle, K. Pandey, S. Chakraborty & E. A. Spencer, 2023: The Growth of Ring Current/SYM‐H Under Northward IMF Bz Conditions Present During the 21–22 January 2005 Geomagnetic Storm. Space Wea. 21,  10, doi:10.1029/2023sw003489.
  • Schreiter, L., C. Stolle, J. Rauberg, G. Kervalishvili, J. van den Ijssel, D. Arnold, C. Xiong & A. Callegare, 2023: Topside Ionosphere Sounding From the CHAMP, GRACE, and GRACE-FO Missions. Radio Sci. 58,  3: 007552, doi:10.1029/2022rs007552.
  • Siddiqui, T. A., Y. Yamazaki, C. Stolle, A. Maute, J. Laštovička, I. K. Edemskiy, Z. Mošna & M. Sivakandan, 2021: Understanding the Total Electron Content Variability Over Europe During 2009 and 2019 SSWs. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 126,  9, doi:10.1029/2020ja028751.
  • Siddiqui, T. A., J. L. Chau, C. Stolle & Y. Yamazaki, 2022: Migrating solar diurnal tidal variability during Northern and Southern Hemisphere Sudden Stratospheric Warmings. Earth Planets Space 74,  1, doi:10.1186/s40623-022-01661-y.
  • Sobhkhiz-Miandehi, S., Y. Yamazaki, C. Arras & D. Themens, 2023: A comparison of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation and ionosonde measurements in sporadic E detection over mid- and low-latitude regions. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 10: 1198071, doi:10.3389/fspas.2023.1198071.
  • Styp-Rekowski, K., I. Michaelis, C. Stolle, J. Baerenzung, M. Korte & O. Kao, 2022: Machine learning-based calibration of the GOCE satellite platform magnetometers. Earth Planets Space 74,  1: 138, doi:10.1186/s40623-022-01695-2.
  • Xiong, C., C. Stolle, I. Michaelis, H. Lühr, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, G. Kervalishvili & J. Rauberg, 2021: Correlation analysis of field-aligned currents from the magnetic measurements of GRACE follow-on mission. Earth Planets Space 73,  1, doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01540-y.
  • Yamazaki, Y., C. Arras, S. Andoh, Y. Miyoshi, H. Shinagawa, B. J. Harding, C. R. Englert, T. J. Immel, S. Sobhkhiz-Miandehi & C. Stolle, 2022: Examining the Wind Shear Theory of Sporadic E With ICON/MIGHTI Winds and COSMIC-2 Radio 2 Occultation Data. Geophys. Res. Lett. 49: 096202, doi:10.1029/2021gl096202.
  • Yamazaki, Y., J. Matzka, C. Stolle, G. Kervalishvili, J. Rauberg, O. Bronkalla, A. Morschhauser, S. Bruinsma, Y. Y. Shprits & D. R. Jackson, 2022: Geomagnetic Activity Index Hpo. Geophys. Res. Lett. 49,  10, doi:10.1029/2022gl098860.
  • Yamazaki, Y., 2023: A method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra for the characterization of global-scale waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and its MATLAB and Python software (fourierwavelet v1.1). Geosci. Model Dev. 16,  16: 4749-4766, doi:10.5194/gmd-16-4749-2023.


  • Tarique A. Siddiqui
  • Yosuke Yamazaki
  • Christoph Zülicke